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Jiaolong is a term that has different meanings depending on the context. In Chinese mythology, Jiaolong is a dragon often depicted as a scaled, hornless, and aquatic creature. Meanwhile, Jiaolong is also the name of a Chinese deep-sea submersible that can dive to a depth of over 7,000 meters. The submersible was named after the mythical creature because of its ability to explore the depths of the ocean.

The Jiaolong submersible is considered one of the most advanced deep-sea exploration vessels in the world. Developed from the Sea Pole-class bathyscaphe, it has the second-greatest depth range of any crewed submersible. In 2012, Jiaolong set China’s previous diving record by plunging 7,062 meters down the Mariana Trench. Since then, it has continued to break new ground in deep-sea exploration, with its latest dive in 2017 reaching over 10,000 meters in the Mariana Trench.

Jiaolong’s name and capabilities have captured the imagination of many people around the world. Its exploration of the deep sea has yielded valuable insights into the mysteries of the ocean, including the discovery of new species and geological formations. As such, Jiaolong remains an important symbol of China’s technological achievements and its commitment to advancing scientific research.

Jiaolong Submersible

Jiaolong is a Chinese crewed deep-sea research submersible that can dive to a depth of over 7,000 meters. It is developed from the Sea Pole-class bathyscaphe and is named after the mythical sea dragon. The submersible is capable of conducting scientific research, resource exploration, and deep-sea rescue missions.

Design and Features

Jiaolong is designed to withstand the extreme pressure and harsh environment of the deep sea. It is equipped with advanced technology and features, including:

  • A titanium alloy pressure hull that can withstand pressure up to 100 MPa
  • A manipulator arm for collecting samples and conducting experiments
  • High-resolution cameras for capturing images and videos of the deep sea
  • A communication system for transmitting data and video in real-time
  • A life support system for the crew, including oxygen and carbon dioxide scrubbers

Missions and Deployments

Since its first dive in 2010, Jiaolong has completed a number of scientific missions and deployments. In 2012, it set a Chinese diving record by plunging 7,062 meters down the Mariana Trench. In 2014, it conducted a 31-day scientific expedition in the South China Sea, collecting samples and conducting experiments. In 2017, it conducted a deep-sea rescue mission in the South China Sea, successfully rescuing three stranded fishermen.

Technological Advancements

Jiaolong has undergone several technological advancements since its first deployment. In 2018, it was upgraded with a new battery system that increased its dive time from 12 hours to 20 hours. In 2019, it was equipped with a new robotic arm that can operate in water depths up to 7,000 meters. These advancements have increased Jiaolong’s capabilities and made it a valuable asset for deep-sea research and exploration.

Jiaolong in Chinese Culture

Mythological Origins

Jiaolong is a mythical creature in Chinese culture that is often depicted as an aquatic dragon. The name “Jiaolong” can be translated to mean “scaled dragon,” and it is sometimes depicted as hornless. According to some scholars, the Jiaolong may have been inspired by a species of crocodile. In Chinese mythology, the Jiaolong is often associated with water and is said to have the ability to control the weather.

Cultural Significance

The Jiaolong is an important symbol in Chinese culture, and it has been featured in many works of art and literature throughout history. It is often associated with power, strength, and good luck. In Chinese folklore, the Jiaolong is said to be a protector of the people and a bringer of rain, which is essential for agriculture.

The Jiaolong has also been used as a symbol of China’s technological advancement. In 2012, China’s first deep-sea manned submersible was named after the mythical sea dragon. The Jiaolong submersible set a new record by diving over 7,000 meters down the Mariana Trench. This achievement was seen as a symbol of China’s growing technological prowess and its ability to explore the depths of the ocean.

Overall, the Jiaolong is an important cultural symbol in China that represents power, strength, and good luck. Its association with water and rain has made it an important figure in Chinese folklore, and its use as a symbol of China’s technological advancement has cemented its place in modern Chinese culture.

Jiaolong Research Initiatives

Deep-Sea Exploration

Jiaolong, China’s first deep-sea manned submersible, has been at the forefront of deep-sea exploration since its launch in 2010. The submersible has conducted numerous deep-sea dives, reaching depths of up to 7,000 meters. Jiaolong has explored the Mariana Trench, the world’s deepest oceanic trench, and discovered new species of marine life.

Jiaolong’s exploration missions have revealed important information about the deep-sea environment, including geological features, hydrothermal vents, and cold seeps. The submersible has also collected samples of sediment, rocks, and marine organisms, which have provided valuable insights into the deep-sea ecosystem.

Scientific Discoveries

Jiaolong’s research initiatives have led to significant scientific discoveries. The submersible has contributed to the study of marine geology, oceanography, and marine biology. Jiaolong’s exploration of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps has shed light on the chemical and biological processes that occur in these unique ecosystems.

Jiaolong’s discovery of new species of marine life has expanded our knowledge of the deep-sea ecosystem. The submersible has also contributed to the study of marine biodiversity and the evolution of marine organisms. Jiaolong’s research initiatives have provided important information for the conservation and management of deep-sea resources.

Jiaolong’s research initiatives have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the deep-sea environment. The submersible has paved the way for future deep-sea exploration and research, and its discoveries will continue to inform our understanding of the deep-sea ecosystem for years to come.

International Collaboration

China’s deep-sea submersible Jiaolong has been the result of over a decade of research, persuasion, and international collaboration. The project’s success is due in no small part to the partnerships formed between Chinese scientists and their counterparts from around the world.


The development of Jiaolong was a collaborative effort between the Chinese government and several international organizations. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the United States, for example, provided technical assistance and training to Chinese scientists. Similarly, the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology worked with Chinese scientists to develop the submersible’s pressure hull.

Joint Expeditions

In addition to these partnerships, Jiaolong has also participated in joint expeditions with other countries’ deep-sea research vessels. For example, in 2014, Jiaolong worked alongside the German research vessel Sonne to conduct joint scientific research in the South China Sea. This collaboration allowed scientists from both countries to share resources and expertise, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the region’s deep-sea ecosystems.

Overall, Jiaolong’s success is a testament to the power of international collaboration in scientific research. By working together, scientists from different countries can bring their unique perspectives and expertise to bear on complex problems, resulting in breakthroughs that would be impossible to achieve alone.

Conservation Efforts

Environmental Impact

As a deep-ocean submersible, Jiaolong has a minimal environmental impact, as it is not designed to operate on the surface. The submersible’s primary goal is to explore the ocean depths and conduct scientific research. The Jiaolong is equipped with a variety of scientific instruments that allow researchers to study the ocean’s geology, biology, and chemistry. The submersible’s data collection capabilities help scientists better understand the ocean’s ecosystems and the impact of human activities on the ocean.

Sustainable Practices

Jiaolong’s mother ship, the Xiangyanghong 09, has been in service since 1978. However, the vessel has been retrofitted to be more environmentally friendly. The ship’s engines have been upgraded to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Additionally, the Xiangyanghong 09 has been outfitted with a variety of waste management systems to reduce its environmental impact.

Jiaolong’s research efforts have also contributed to conservation efforts. The submersible has been used to study deep-sea ecosystems and the effects of climate change on the ocean. The data collected by Jiaolong has helped researchers better understand the ocean’s role in regulating the Earth’s climate. Furthermore, Jiaolong’s research has helped to identify areas of the ocean that are particularly vulnerable to human activities, such as deep-sea mining and oil exploration.

In conclusion, Jiaolong and its mother ship, the Xiangyanghong 09, have taken steps to reduce their environmental impact and contribute to conservation efforts. The submersible’s research capabilities have helped scientists better understand the ocean’s ecosystems and the impact of human activities on the ocean.